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A dividing line is a road marking formed by a white/yellow line or two parallel white/yellow lines (broken or continous) designed to seperate the parts of a road to be used by vehicles travelling in opposite directions.

Broken Line (or Broken Line to the left of a Continous Line)

You must keep to the left of these lines. You may cross them to overtake or make a turn, but you must only do so if it is safe.

Single Continuous Line (or Single Continous Line to the left of a Broken Line) You must keep to the left of these lines. You must not cross these lines to overtake or make a U- Turn but may cross them to enter or leave the road or to go past an obstruction. Parallel Lines You must keep to the left and must not cross these lines, unless you have to avoid an obstruction.

Avoiding an obstruction

You are permitted to cross single or double continuous lines in order to avoid an obstruction - This does not include a slower moving vehicle or a vehicle stopped in a line of traffic but may include a fallen tree, a crashed vehicle, or a car that has broken down or is illegally parked. Before crossing the line, you must have a clear view of the road ahead and it must be safe. You must also be very sure that you cross safely because the onus is on you to take the risk of danger into account.


The essential purpose of road markings is to guide and control traffic on a highway or roads. They supplement the function of traffic signs. The markings serve as a psychological barrier and signify the delineation of traffic path and its lateral clearance from traffic hazards for the safe movement of traffic. They are the guides of

Hence they are very important to ensure the safe, smooth and harmonious flow of traffic. Various types of road markings like longitudinal markings, transverse markings, object markings and special markings to warn the driver about the hazardous locations in the road etc.

The road markings are defined as lines, patterns, words or other devices, except signs, set into applied or attached to the carriageway or kerbs or to objects within or adjacent to the carriageway, for controlling, warning, guiding and informing the users. The road markings are classified as longitudinal markings, transverse markings, object markings, word messages, marking for parking, marking at hazardous locations etc.

  • ❖ Centre Line Marking For A Two Lane Road
  • ❖ Lane Line And Broken Centre Line
  • ❖ Centre Barrier Line Marking For A Four Lane Road
  • ❖ Centre Barrier Line Marking For A Six Lane Road
  • Double White/Yellow Lines: Used where visibility is restricted in both directions. Neither stream of traffic is allowed to cross the lines.

Correct Road Positioning

Bad or inappropriate road positioning can come in various forms. It all however stems from a lack of forward planning, anticipation and observation. By the time you have reached your driving test, you should be in the position to:
  • ❖ forward plan your driving – know the correct procedure and driving routine in good time and well before you have reached a given situation.
  • ❖ anticipation – to predict any possible hazards on a turn, roundabout or junction etc. These could be parked cars, cyclists, pedestrians etc.
  • ❖ observation – constant observation primarily just in front of you and as far up the road as you can see and also frequently into all mirrors.
  • If you have mastered these, then it is unlikely you will find yourself in a bad road position.

Road Positioning On The Driving Test

❖Passing Parked Cars

A frequent problem on driving tests is learner drivers passing too closely to parked cars. Try to allow 1 metre gap from door to door when passing parked cars in case any open. If this is not possible due to road widths, a reduction in speed is essential. See passing parked cars for further information.

❖Passing cyclists

Again, passing a cyclist too closely can easily fail a driving test. Allow at least a 1 metre gap if they are not in a cycle lane. Follow a very simple rule when passing cyclists, if you are in doubt if it is safe for you or the cyclist to pass them, hold back behind them until you are confident. See cyclists and cycle lanes for further help.

❖Turning left

If your car is positioned too close to the left side of the road before making a left turn, it can result in hitting the kerb or even mounting the pavement whilst turning. Ensure you remain in the centre of the road before turning. See left and right turns for help.

❖Turning right

Making a right turn safely depends on the road position of your car before taking it. A bad road position can result in hitting the kerb as you turn too wide or cutting off the junction corner. Either are likely to result in a test failure. Ensure you position the car correctly (left of centre line) and use the point of turn. See turning right for further information.


These include T-junctions, roundabouts and crossroads. Stopping too soon before a junction line reduces your visibility of approaching traffic and stopping too far over the junction line puts you in danger of being hit by another vehicle. See types of junctions for help on this.

Changing Lanes Safely Whilst Driving

Changing lanes whilst driving, for a learner driver can often seem like a precarious situation. The driving test may involve changing lanes either intentionally, or a learner, they may realise that they are in an incorrect lane and may need to change in order to remain on course. Changing lanes is actually a rather simple task. What can be difficult is to actually make a decision quickly, or at least the correct one and to ensure it is done safely. This tutorial explain the correct technique for changing lanes and if it is actually necessary.

When Might You Need To Change Lanes

These are the typical places where you may need to or have to change lanes during a driving test:
  • ❖Overtaking. In a driving test, this will be done on a dual carriageway and not a single carriageway road.
  • ❖Approaching junctions. This can include roundabouts, T-junctions or crossroads.
  • ❖Dual carriageways and A roads. A dual carriageway or ‘A’ roads may require a lane change in order to follow a particular route.
  • ❖The wrong lane. You have taken the incorrect lane and need to change lanes in order to remain on course. (Pretty common that one!)

Tips And Steps For Pedestrian Safety

Take Steps for Safety

The following are some of the helpful tips which need to be kept in mind:

Walk carefully! Someone is waiting for You at home!!!

  • ❖Simple but standard practice should be- cross the street at a designated crosswalk or intersection.
  • ❖It's safest to walk on a sidewalk, but if one is not available, walk on the shoulder and face traffic.
  • ❖Some drivers may be distracted. Do not step in to the roadway until the driver has stopped for you, or has acknowledged your intent to cross with eye contact, a wave or a nod.
  • ❖Zebra crossing: This is marked by yellow flashing beacons. The actual crossing area is marked by black and white "zebra" stripes.
  • ❖Pelican crossing: At this crossing, an amber light will flash for a short period after the red light for drivers goes out. Similarly, the "green man" light for pedestrians will flash for a short time before changing to the "red man" light. A flashing amber light at a pelican crossing gives priority to pedestrians.
  • ❖Traffic lights: If you are crossing at traffic lights, but there are no signals for pedestrians, check the lights in both directions. When the traffic on the road you wish to cross is governed by a red light, cross carefully. REMEMBER If you can't see the driver, they can't see you.

Advantages of Road Markings Types of Road Markings

Carriageway Road Markings Longitudinal Markings Intersection Markings

  • Hazardous Location Markings Parking
  • Word Messages Object Markings
  • Road markings provide guidance for disciplined and safe driving. It is suggested to mark all the major roads with lanes, edge and median markings together with delineators.

    Road Markings are the coloured paintings on the roads.

  • ❖èPerform an important function of guiding and controlling traffic.
  • ❖èServe as a psychological barrier and signify the delineation of the traffic path.
  • ❖èChannelise the movement of pedestrians and cyclists into the safe zones.
  • ❖èConveys information to road users without distracting the attention from the carriageway.
  • ❖èTherefore, are indispensable to ensure smooth & orderly flow of traffic and for promoting road safety.

When you must not overtake

You must not overtake another vehicle when:
  • ❖ It is stopping or has stopped at a pedestrian or children’s crossing.
  • ❖ It has stopped at an intersection (unless the driver signals that they are turning left or right and it is safe to do so).
  • ❖ There is a ‘NO OVERTAKING’ or ‘NO PASSING’ sign.
  • ❖ You are nearing a blind bend or the crest of a hill or you do not have a good view of the road ahead.
  • ❖ The road is marked with a dividing line comprising two continuous lines; a continuous line on the left of a broken or dotted line; or a single continuous line.
  • ❖ The vehicle in front is displaying a “DO NOT OVERTAKE TURNING VEHICLE” sign if that vehicle is turning, unless it is safe to do so.
  • ❖ Being overtaken
  • ❖ The way you drive when you are being overtaken can add to safety on our roads so, please:
  • ❖ Keep well to the left to allow plenty of clearance for any overtaking vehicle and be prepared to brake if the other vehicle suddenly cuts back in front of you.
  • ❖ Never drive in a manner that prevents another vehicle from overtaking yours.
  • ❖ Dip your lights at night time as the overtaking vehicle approaches the front of your vehicle.

Harm Caused by Drunk Driving

Drunk driving harms individuals and communities in many ways.
    Drivers, passengers, and pedestrians are killed and injured. Injured persons, their families, and their employers suffer financial losses when an injured person cannot work. Vehicles are damaged and destroyed. Other property, such as trees, utility poles, highway signs, and buildings, are damaged and destroyed. Motor vehicle insurance rates rise. Traffic flow is impeded by crashed vehicles. Other drivers, fearing for their safety, may avoid driving at certain times. Police resources are consumed enforcing drunk driving laws, thereby reducing the resources that are available for other public safety problems. Police, fire, emergency medical, and hospital resources are consumed treating the victims of drunk driving crashes.
  • ❖A designated driver helps you party another day.
  • ❖ A tree never hits an automobile except in self defense
  • ❖ Allow life to thrive, don’t drink and drive.
  • ❖Better to arrive sober and late than never.
  • ❖ Buzzed driving is drunk driving.
  • ❖ Don’t drink and drive, and you’ll stay alive.

Checklist before buying a helmet

You are ready to buy a helmet, but do not know where to begin. Here is a checklist that can make buying a helmet easier and meaningful.
  • ➢ Check for safety standards
  • ➢ Take time to check fittings. Ensure a comfortable fit
  • ➢ Try a helmet in front of a mirror to check if it suits your personality
  • ➢ Buy a helmet from an authorised dealer only. Never buy it from street side vendors
  • ➢ Insist on a bill and save it
  • ➢ Ask for a helmet instruction card along with the helmet. Read it carefully
  • ➢ Buy a helmet lock. If you do not wish to carry your helmet around, you can lock it to your motorcycle
  • ➢ Helmet should not obstruct vision.
  • ➢ Helmet should not impair with hearing.
  • ➢ Helmet should be light weight.
  • ➢ Helmet should not cause fatigue which causes crashes.
  • ➢ Helmet should not cause skin diseases.
  • ➢ Helmet should not increase the probability of neck injuries.

Lane Discipline Tips

Lane Discipline Tips:-

  • ➢.Look well ahead whilst driving for road signs, road markings and anything that may signify a junction or roundabout is ahead such  as traffic crossing in front of you.
  • ➢.Slowdown in good time to establish the correct lane.
  • ➢.If the location looks busy or difficult to maneuver, keep the vehicle extra slow.
  • ➢.eep an eye on the lanes to see if they curve round a corner and at roundabouts alternate observations from the right to where you are going constantly and quickly.

Speed Blindness

Speed Blindness:-

ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಅಪಾಯಕಾರಿ. ನೀವು ನಿಮಗನ್ನಿಸಿದ್ದಕ್ಕಿಂತ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವೇಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಕ್ರಮಿಸುವ ಪರಿ. ಇದು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಜೀವನಕ್ಕೆ ಕುತ್ತು ತರುತ್ತದೆ. ಕ್ಷಣಮಾತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ನೀವು ನಿಮ್ಮ ವಾಹನವನ್ನು ನಿಯಂತ್ರಿಸಬೇಕಾದ ಪರಿಸ್ಥಿತಿ ಬಂದಲ್ಲಿ ನೀವು ವಾಹನದ ವೇಗವನ್ನು ಸರಿಯಾಗಿ ನಿರ್ಧರಿಸಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯವಾಗದೆ, ಅಪಘಾತ ಸಂಭವಿಸುವುದು. ನೀವು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಕಾರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಗಂಟೆಗೆ 60 ಕಿ.ಮೀ. ವೇಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಚಲಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದು ಒಣ ರಸ್ತೆಯ ಮೇಲೆ ನೀವು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಕಾರನ್ನು ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸಲು ಬ್ರೇಕ್ ಹಾಕಿದರೆ 35 ಮೀಟರ್ ಗಳಷ್ಟು ಚಲಿಸಿದ ನಂತರ ನಿಲ್ಲಲು ಸಾಧ್ಯ. ನೀವು 120 ಕಿ.ಮೀ. ವೇಗದಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಚಲಿಸುತಿದ್ದರೆ ನೀವು ಬ್ರೇಕ್ ಹಾಕಿದಾಗ ನಿಲ್ಲಲು 110 ಮೀಟರ್ ಗಳ ದೂರ ಕ್ರಮಿಸಬೇಕಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಈಗಿನ ಆತ್ಯಾಧುನಿಕ ಕಾರುಗಳು ಬಹಳ ಶಬ್ದ ಮಾಡದೇ ಚಲಿಸುವುದರಿಂದ ವೇಗದ ಪರಮಾವಧಿಗೆ ತಲುಪಿದರೂ ತಿಳಿಯುವುದಿಲ್ಲ. ಸರಿಯಾದ ಚಾಲಕನಿಗೆ ಗೊತ್ತು "Speedometer ನೋಡುವ ಅಭ್ಯಾಸವನ್ನು ಮಾಡಿದರೆ ಜೀವ ಉಳಿಯುತ್ತದೆ .

Horn Only If You Must

Please do not horn in the following situations:-

    ❖ When you are not required to horn
  • ❖When you see a green signal at junction when all others are waiting to move.
  • ❖When you are not too fast on your vehicle.
  • ❖When you see someone changing the lane but you are keeping good distance.
  • ❖When you see a pedestrian crossing the road, give him the way.
  • ❖When you are expected to break.
  • ❖When you are not sure about your skill of riding/driving.
  • ❖Horn only if necessary, briefly to prevent an accident. Too long horn is a bad behavior. Use dippers at night instead of horns they will work better.

Drive With Responsibility

Driving is a privilege and a responsible act. There are several factors which have a pivotal role to play in driving on public road. The road space must be shared and not competed for space. Road, environment, vehicles and road users are all included in the road transport system. Among them, the most complex and dynamic factor seems to be human behavior. Whether all the road users follow traffic rules and adopt a careful and considerate driving and walking attitude has a great bearing on road safety. Therefore, lot of impotence is attached to driving attitudes of the motoring community.